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Die Hatha Yoga Pradipika des Swatmarama – einige Hintergründe

hier alle vortraege von mir in der uebersicht texte allgemein

Gorakhnath




Nach einer Einführung kommen unten zwei Vorträge zum Thema. Yoga ist Uralt und die Quellen liegen im dunkeln, man kann heute leider nicht mehr so genau sagen wie es entstanden ist.

Mit dem Begriff “Yoga” ist vieles gemeint, das Wort bedeutet zunächst „Verbindung, Vereinigung, Verschmelzung” im weitesten Sionne dann auch “Einheit, Integration oder Einswerdung”. Es stammt von der Silbe “Yug, Yui” wie bei uns das Joch, also “Anspannen, Angurten”. Es hat also eine ähnliche Bedeutung wie unser Wort “Religion”, welches von “Re” und “ligare” kommt und “wieder-verbinden” heißt. Es ist allerdings noch viel mehr mit dem Wort Yoga gemeint, es ist ein ganzheitliches Übunssystem mit vielfältigen Aspekten auf verschiedensten Ebenen und dient der Entwicklung von Körper Geist und Seele.

Im Westen versteht man unter Yoga meist nur die Körperliche Ebene, die klassischer Weise nur ein kleiner Teil des ganzen Systems darstellt. Yoga sind eher geistige Techniken zur Erweiterung des Bewusstseins, und man kann eben auch vom Körper ausgehend arbeiten. Zwar gab es in der 5000 Jährigen Geschichte des Yoga schon immer Körperübungen, jedoch waren diese immer Mittel zum Zweck und stellten kein eigenständiges System dar. In Ayurvedischen Texten und alten mythologischen Geschichten der Inder findet man desöfteren Hinweise auf Hatha Yoga Praktiken, aber eben keine genauen Beschreibungen. So gelten seit alters her 4 Wege als die klassischen Disziplinen des Yoga: Bhakti-, Jnana-, Karma- und Raja- Yoga.

Nath Yoga Kult als Ursprung der Hatha Yoga Pradipika

Wahrscheinlich in der Zeit von 500-1000 n.Chr. hat sich in Indien aus dem Hinduismus eine neue Bewegung entwickelt, welche die Körperlichkeit mehr in den Vordergrund stellte. Dieser Nath-Kult hat sich aus der Tantrischen Tradition heraus entwickelt, und gilt heute als Ursprung des modernen Hatha Yoga. Mit Tantra ist üblicherweise verschiedenes gemeint. Es ist eine Volksreligion die vor allem die Göttliche Mutter verehrt, es ist ein philosophisches Konzept der wiedervereinigung von Bewusstsein und Materie, es ist eine Reihe von klassischen Texten der alten Inder und ein praktisches Übundssystem.

Die Nath Yogis haben im laufe der Zeit elaborierte Methoden entwickelt die es ermöglichen über die Körperlich-Energetische Ebene zu einem höheren Bewusstsein zu kommen. Zeitlich lässt sich das Entstehen des Hatha Yoga kaum datieren, denn Indische Geschichte ist allgemein schwer nachzuvollziehen. Die alten Texte wurden meist auf Palmblätter geschrieben die bereits nach 100 Jahren unbrauchbar waren. Das Alter der Hatha Yoga Pradipika wird auf ein schier unfassbares Zeitfenster vonn 3000 v.Chr. bis 1700 n.Chr. geschätzt, wobei sich die Fachleute verschiedener richtungen über das Alter streiten. Traditioneller Weise werden die Texte im Yoga als sehr alt betrachtet, moderne Indologen schätzen das Alter eher knapp ein. Mir scheint es plausibel zu sein, dass der Text vor etwas über 1000 Jahren entstanden ist.

Es werden verschiedene grosse Meister im Zusammenhang mit dem Entstehen von Hatha Yoga als eigenständigen Weg genannt. So sagt man in der mythologischen Erklärung, es hätte der Guru Matsyendranath in seiner vorherigen Inkarnation als Matsya das Hatha Yoga von Adinath (dem “ersten Meister”) bzw. Shiva empfangen. Er hat sein Wissen dann an Gorakhnath bzw. Gorakshanath weiter gegeben. Beide werden auch in Nepal und Tibet als große Lehrer verehrt und sie gelten als Begründer des Nath-Kultes und des Hatha Yoga, sie werden auch die “Mahasiddhas” genannt. Gorakhnath hat wohl den Text “Hatha Yoga” verfasst, der heute verschollen ist. Viele Meister dieser Traditionslinie haben verschiedene Texte verfasst und das körperliche Yoga weiter perfektioniert. Bekannte und wichtige Texte sind zB die “Gheranda Samhita”, das “Goraksha Sataka” und das “Shiva Samhita”.

Als Zusammenfassung oder Essenz der genannten Texte gilt Swatmaramas Text “Hatha Yoga Pradipika”. Swatmarama bedeutet: “Der sich an seinem wahren Selbst erfreut” und die Übersetzung des Titels seines Textes ist: “Die Leuchte des Hatha Yoga”. Das Wort “Hatha” hat zwei mögliche Übersetzungen, zum einen bedeutet es direkt “Anstrengung”. Es wird aber gesagt die Worte “Ha” und “Tha” stehen für Sonne und Mond, also für die Balance zwischen den beiden Kräften. Der Text enthält 389 Verse unterteilt in 4 Kapitel. Die einzelnen Kapitel werde ich dann auf gesonderten Seiten besprechen.

Hier also der einleitende Vortrag über die Hatha Yoga Pradipika von Swatmarama:

Die ersten 9 Verse der Hatha Yoga Pradipika:

hier alle vortraege von mir in der uebersicht texte allgemein

Studium der Schriften.

hier alle vortraege von mir in der uebersicht texte allgemein

Permanentlink zu diesem Beitrag: http://vedanta-yoga.de/hatha-yoga-pradipika-swatmarama/

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