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Sivananda (Raja-) Yoga Sadhana Sutras



Swami Sivananda hat auf verschiedenste Art das Wissen vom Yoga aufbereitet und weitergegeben. Er hatte sehr viele Schüler und schrieb über 400 Bücher. Er hat dabei immer versucht beim Wesentlichen zu bleiben und die Essenz zu vermitteln. So hat er hier in 14 Punkten den Kern des Yoga Sutra nach Patanjali formuliert. Die 196 Verse des Yoga Sutra bilden die Grundlage des Raja Yoga, des Weges der Kontrolle des Geistes.

Hier zunächst der Sutra Text, formuliert von Swami Sivananda, auf Basis der Lehren des Weisen Patanjali.

Sivananda Yoga Sadhana Sutra

1. Nun über Yoga Sadhana.
2. Yoga Sadhana gipfelt in der Einheit mit dem Herrn.
3. Lerne Yoga mit einem Guru.
4. Übe Ahimsa, Satya, Brahmacharya.
5. Pflege Barmherzigkeit, Demut, Geduld.
6. Habe eine einfache, bequeme, feste Haltung.
7. Reguliere den Atem, kontrolliere das Prana.
8. Kontrolliere die Erscheinungsformen des Geistes.
9. Überlasse die Früchte deiner Handlungen dem Herrn.
10. Nimm leichte Nahrung zu dir, Milch und Früchte.
11. Übe Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.
12. Siddhis sind Hindernisse im Yoga. Meide sie.
13. Übe erst den niederen Samadhi.
14. Erreiche Asamprajnata Samadhi.

Im folgenden möchte ich gerne die 14 Punkte von Swami Sivananda kurz kommentieren, um sie dadurch etwas zugänglicher zu machen.

Sivananda Yoga Sadhana Sutras

1. Nun über Yoga Sadhana.
Unter dem Begriff “Yoga” kann man sehr verschiedenes verstehen. Im Westen denkt man zB meist an die Körperübungen. In Indien versteht man unter dem Begriff je nach zusammenhang sehr unterschiedliches. In einem Buch von einem Sanskritprofessor habe ich mal 25 verschiedene Worte im Deutschen als mögliche Übersetzung gelesen. Beispielsweise ist in der Bhagavad Gita unter dem Wort “Yoga” zumeist “Karma Yoga” zu verstehen. Im laufe der Jahrhunderte verändern sich eben begriffe und definitionen. Man unterscheidet klassischer Weise die 6 orthodoxen Philosophiesysteme Indiens, eines davon wird als “Yoga” bezeichnet. Damit ist im engeren Sinne die Weltsicht des “Yoga-Sutra” von Patanjali gemeint, obwohl das moderne Yoga viele verschiedene Philosophische Ansätze kennt. Hier meint Swami Sivananda mit dem Wort “Yoga” das raja Yoga nach Patanjali. Sadhana bedeutet spirituelle Praxis, er erläutert also knapp den Übungsweg des Raja Yoga.

2. Yoga Sadhana gipfelt in der Einheit mit dem Herrn.
Ziel des Yoga ist das Überwinden aller Begrenzungen und das Verschmelzen mit der Erfahrung von Gott. Die Yogasutras unterscheiden dabei sehr genau verschiedene Stufen der Erfahrungen auf dem Weg der Erkenntnis.

3. Lerne Yoga mit einem Guru.
Wir können zwar Yogatechniken aus einem Buch oder einem Blog entnehmen, jedoch braucht es einen Lehrer um wahrhaft den Weg zu gehen. “Guru” bedeutet wörtlich “Der Beseitiger der Dunkelheit”, ein Guru sollte sich im Yoga nicht über die Schüler stellen, sondern ist ein Freund der andere begleitet.

4. Übe Ahimsa, Satya, Brahmacharya.
Diese Begriffe können übersetzt werden mit Gewaltlosigkeit, Wahrhaftigkeit und Gottesbewusstsein. Ahimsa gilt als die wichtigste Tugend die es zu entwickeln gilt, also so zu leben, dass keine anderen Wesen verletzt werden. Satya ist unabdingbar um zu einem ruhigen Gemüt zu kommen, nur wer ehrlich ist kann sich zur Klaheit entwickeln. Brahmacharya kann vielfach gedeutet werden, meist ist mit dem Begriff die sexuelle Enthaltsamkeit gemeint, jedoch kann man es auch deuten als empfehlung für einen Bewussten Umgang mit der eigenen Sexualität.

5. Pflege Barmherzigkeit, Demut, Geduld.
Diese Eigenschaften haben wir bereits in uns, wir müssen sie nicht üben sondern täglich pflegen. Diese Tugenden werden in allen Religionen als sehr wichtig angesehen.

6. Habe eine einfache, bequeme, feste Haltung.
“Sthira Sukham Asanam” YS II.46. Patanjali sagt: “Deine Haltung sollte zugleich Fest und stabil, als auch bequem und angenehm sein.” Das kann man auf seine Meditationshaltung beziehen und auch als empfehlung für das tägliche Leben…

7. Reguliere den Atem, kontrolliere das Prana.
Der Atem verbindet unseren Körper mit den feinstofflichen Ebenen unseres Seins. Über die Kontrolle des Atems haben wir Zugang zu unserer Lebensenergie.

8. Kontrolliere die Erscheinungsformen des Geistes.
Patanjali beschreibt in seinen Yoga Sutras recht detailliert die verschiedenen Bewegungen des Geistes, die Vrittis. Ziel des Yoga ist nach seiner Definition das zur Ruhe bringen dieser Bewegungen durch Beobachtung.

9. Überlasse die Früchte deiner Handlungen dem Herrn.
Dies ist letztlich der Gedanke des Karma Yoga. Wir handeln als Opfer an Gott, oder anders gesagt, wir verschenken unser Handlungen an die Welt. Die Ergebnisse unseres Handelns akzeptieren wir als Geschenk, also alles was uns wiederfährt nehmen wir wohlwollend an.

10. Nimm leichte Nahrung zu dir, Milch und Früchte.
Um den geist zur Ruhe zu bringen und die Pranaströme zu kontrollieren, ist es empfehlenswert leichte Nahrung zu sich zu nehmen.

11. Übe Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi.
Dies sind die höheren Stufen des Ashtanga nach Patanjali und sie werden Samyama genannt. Dharana ist die Konzentration, Dhyana die Meditation oder Kontemplation und Samadhi der überbewusste Zustand, Samyama bedeutet Sammlung. Manche interpretieren das Ashtanga als Stufen, wobei die Wörtliche Übersetzung “Acht Glieder” ist, und es daher eher als parallel zu übende Teile zu verstehen ist. Für mich bedeutet das Samyama das gleichzeitige Üben von Konzentration und Versenkung, sowie das Betrachten aus der Meta-Ebene. Der Begriff Samadhi ist kontrovers und schwierig, ich denke es ist je nach Sinnzusammenhang auch unterschiedliches damit gemeint.

12. Siddhis sind Hindernisse im Yoga. Meide sie.
Wer auf dem Yoga-Weg voranschreitet, wird irgendwann besondere Kräfte entwickeln. Da die Wissenschaft sie nicht verstehen und sie über die Ebene des materiell erklärbaren hinausgehen, werden sie als übersinnlich bezeichnet. Diese Fähigkeiten die sich entfalten sollte man wohlwollend zur Kenntnis nehmen und nicht weiter beachten, denn sie sind Prüfungen auf dem Weg und leiten vom Wesentlichen ab.

13. Übe erst den niederen Samadhi.
Hier sind mit Samadhi besondere Bewusstseinszustände gemeint die man in tiefer Meditation erreichen kann. Im Raja Yoga werden verschiedenste Erfahrungen der versenkung detailliert analysiert um sie so zu überwinden. Um die Ebene der Erfahrungen zu verlassen, und mit allem im Einheitsbewusstsein zu verschmelzen, wird dieses Überbewusstsein geübt.

14. Erreiche Asamprajnata Samadhi.
Wenn die Ursachen der Erfahrungen erlischen verschmelzen wir mit dem höchsten Bewusstsein. Das ist das Ziel des Raja Yoga: Über das zur Ruhe bringen der bewegungen des Geistes die Einheit mit allem finden.

Grurudevs Platz an der Ganga

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